These papers present the results of the Citizenship DRC's most extensive efforts to distil higher-order conclusions from the research. Working in small teams, the authors looked comparatively at the case studies to interrogate major theoretical questions.
von Lieres, B & L , PiperIDS Working Paper, Number 364This paper looks to explore and interrogate an important component of successful public participation cases which we ...This paper looks to explore and interrogate an important component of successful public participation cases which we term ‘democratic mediation’. It is argued that, around the world, the practice of ‘democratic mediation’ is an increasingly common phenomenon in forms of engagement between citizens and public authority, which includes, but is not limited to the state as neo-liberal globalisation intersects with democratisation. This claim emerges from an analysis of a significant number of Citizenship Development Research Centre (CDRC) case-studies on recent forms of citizen participation in the global south. Further, despite some important differences, these forms of mediation share a common feature of activism by a relatively elite third party for the inclusion of the interests of marginalised groups in formal decision-making.
von Lieres, B & D, KahaneIDS Practice PaperHow can educators work together to enhance work on democracy and citizenship? This paper analyses the trajectory and ...How can educators work together to enhance work on democracy and citizenship? This paper analyses the trajectory and dynamics of the Teaching and Learning (T&L) group, an initiative that brought together educators from seven countries to address the challenges of developing and delivering courses on citizenship and democratising teaching and learning environments. Part of the Citizenship DRC, a wider research consortium that examined the dynamics of citizen participation in diverse contexts, the T&L group centred on peer-to-peer reflection, learning and support. Its innovative ways of working and success in developing a wide range of courses and trainings challenge expert-driven models of pedagogical development. They also point to the importance of transnational collaborations in enhancing curricula, courses and teaching methods that effectively support both learning about democracy and citizenship, and democratic teaching capacities.
Coelho, VSPIn this paper I argue that citizen involvement helped to promote a more equitable distribution of public health servi...In this paper I argue that citizen involvement helped to promote a more equitable distribution of public health services in Brazil. This achievement involved a balance of contributions from social actors and health system managers in forging policy innovations and institutional arrangements that linked bottom up innovation with national policy leveraging and decentralized implementation. The paper briefly describes this cycle and its relation with the implementation of a national network of forums for citizen involvement in health policy, inquiring in more detail the conditions that favor the association between these forums and the policy making process. Our results do not corroborate the idea that deliberative arenas should be insulated from political passions; rather, they suggest that participation of mobilized social actors contributes to the effectiveness of these forums. This contribution happens both due to the knowledge that these actors bring about problems in the area and to their insertion in networks that connect forums to a wide set of social organizations and political, governmental, and health institutions, which in turn facilitate the dissemination and negotiation of the proposals and demands formulated by the forums. Despite these achievements the results also call attention to a slight increase in inequality in the distribution of basic services between the poorest regions.
Wheeler, J, Pearce, J & R, McGeeIDS Working PaperThe impact of violence on the everyday lives of citizens in a number of countries, regions and cities of the global S...The impact of violence on the everyday lives of citizens in a number of countries, regions and cities of the global South has been the central theme of five years’ work in the Violence, Participation and Citizenship (VPC) group of the DRC on Citizenship, Participation and Accountability. Important questions arose from this work about security provision and democracy in contexts of violence, particularly chronic violence. In the contexts in which we worked, security provision did not necessarily diminish violence and enable democratic participation and the meaningful exercise of citizenship rights - which should define security - but the opposite often occurred.
Benequista, N & J, WheelerIDS Working PaperForthcomingForthcoming
Coelho, VSP, Thompson, L & R, MohantyIDS Working Paper, Number 359Democracy is considered the common ‘currency’ of state and civil society interaction in middle-economic-power states ...Democracy is considered the common ‘currency’ of state and civil society interaction in middle-economic-power states such as India, Brazil and South Africa. In fact the IBSA (India, Brazil, South Africa) link, as it is understood in international relations, is premised upon certain political and economic similarities between these three states in the South, not least their democratic political foundations.1 In this paper we are looking at the IBSA states from a citizen-centric point of view, embarking upon a comparative analysis of how states deal with citizens’ demands from within. Given the broad similarities of democratic political structures, the emerging economies that make the three states middle-income and the persistent socioeconomic inequalities in these countries, such an analysis of society-state relationships in the IBSA countries will have value for understanding how democracies can be deepened in order to make states responsive to citizens’ demands. This paper consolidates and synthesises the insights from an international research project that has investigated citizen participation and the deepening of democratic processes in the southern countries, including the IBSA countries. The aim of this synthesis paper is to revisit the research findings from this project to explore the interaction between mobilisation and the state as they continue to respond, influence and reconstitute each other in the three formal democracies under study in India, Brazil and South Africa.
Mahmud, S & C.N., MusembiCitizenship DRC Synthesis Paper - DraftThis article assesses the impact that social mobilization/political empowerment initiatives led by NGOs have had on ...This article assesses the impact that social mobilization/political empowerment initiatives led by NGOs have had on the gender dynamics of every-day expression of citizenship at community level in Kenya and Bangladesh. Dominant discourses on gender and citizenship have tended to focus on structural constraints on women’s exercise of citizenship rights, as manifested in laws, policies and design of public institutions. Without denying the reality of these structural constraints, this article seeks to make visible the role of agency in the construction of citizenship: the micro-level day-to-day expressions of citizenship, the influence of NGO-led social mobilization/political empowerment initiatives in cultivating that agency, and the gender dynamics that are implicated in day-to-day expressions of citizenship. This article builds on earlier writings based on two micro-level studies in Kenya and Banglades
Robins, S, von Lieres, B & A, CornwallIDS Working Paper, Number 363This paper draws on case study research conducted by members of the DFID-funded Citizenship Development Research Cent...This paper draws on case study research conducted by members of the DFID-funded Citizenship Development Research Centre to explore instantiations of citizenship in different kinds of states, and to reflect what citizen engagement comes to imply in these contexts. Rather than seeking a unified definition of citizenship that covers all dimensions of human action, entitlement and belonging, we are interested in the everyday, and often highly contingent and improvisational, negotiations and performances through which people define and pursue their desires and aspirations. We suggest that an approach that explores diverse meanings and expressions of citizenship in different kinds of states can enrich our understanding of citizenship precisely because it proceeds less from normative claims or abstract ideals than from everyday encounters in particular contexts. Such an approach draws attention to the diverse ways in which particular subject-positions and forms of identification are articulated in the pursuit of concrete social and political projects. We begin by reviewing thinking on democratic citizenship in relation to the global South, and go on from there to dimensions and experiences of citizen engagement in different contexts.
Mohanty, R, Coelho, VSP, Thompson, L, Pant, M, Shankland, A, Favareto, A, Tapscott, C & L , PiperAfrican Centre for Citizenship and Democracy: Cape TownDemocracy is considered the common ‘currency’ of state and civil society interaction in middle-economic-power states ...Democracy is considered the common ‘currency’ of state and civil society interaction in middle-economic-power states such as India, Brazil and South Africa. In fact the IBSA (India, Brazil, South Africa) link, as it is understood in international relations, is premised upon certain political and economic similarities between these three states in the South, not least their democratic political foundations.1 In this paper we are looking at the IBSA states from a citizen-centric point of view, embarking upon a comparative analysis of how states deal with citizens’ demands from within...
Leach, M & A, CornwallCitizenship DRC Synthesis PaperRecent debates about citizen involvement in health have given new political currency to the promise of the Alma Ata D...Recent debates about citizen involvement in health have given new political currency to the promise of the Alma Ata Declaration of 1978, and its emphasis on the role people can play in the design and delivery of primary health care services. This article reflects on some of the emphases and silences in these debates. It draws on a series of case studies of citizen engagement from Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa and the UK, bringing together work on institutionalised participation and mobilization. To understand how public and citizen involvement shapes health services, this article suggests, closer attention needs to be paid to issues of representation, framing and the politics of identity and knowledge. By exploring the synergies between mobilization and invited participation, the article explores what insights might be gained into the ways people negotiate health citizenship and influence the institutions and decisions that affect such a fundamental dimension of their lives.
- Overarching lessons
- Citizenship: meanings and expressions
- Claiming rights and accountability
- New spaces for change?
- Science and citizenship
- Deepening democracy
- Winning policy change
- Global citizen engagement
- Social movements in the south
- Citizenship in violent settings